Sunday, December 8, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Price Regulation and Relative Delays. Answer: Introduction: The main issue here is that that USA invents different types of medicines, which are very fruitful for the survival of human kind. So, in order to create effective medicines a good research infrastructure like a proper research laboratory with proper equipments is needed for it. The most crucial thing is recruiting scientists for this purpose. Research Scientists plays a crucial role in this aspect. Research scientists also need a good amount of sponsorship for this reason. A huge amount of money is required for all these reasons. Canada borrows the research ideas from USA and manufactures medicines by applying the research ideas. There are not so much costs in manufacturing medicines and another important factor is the price control of Canada helps it to provide medicines to the customer at a much lower rate. The Canadian law sanctions a review board whenever the cost of the medicine crosses its limit than the average cost of six countries of Europe. Thus, for this reason Drug Compa ny of other companies sells medicines at a lower cost to Canada whereas in the United States they sell at a higher cost because USA do not object to provide more money . Moreover, Canada follows the policy of price discrimination. It means that they sell medicines to people of different background at a variegated rate (Costa-Font, McGuire Varol, 2014). After recovering the expense of research and development companies by imposing high costs in the United States, the companies try to generate revenue in Canada and other countries like Germany by investing a very little amount of money for manufacturing the medicine, pills, syrups, ointments. The members of Congress in the Senate from the both the parties has initiated bills to stop this Price Discrimination either by accessing the re-importation of drugs from Canada or by entailing U.S. drug corporations to recommend to offer medicines at a uniform rate for all of North America (Conti, Padula, Larson, 2016). The controversy and co mpetition regarding the price control of medicines now between USA and Canada starts here. On the other hand USA have to envelop the research and development expenditure, so consequently the price of the pills would be much more than the the Canada medicines. However, USA will manufacture more pills than Canada, which will help it to sell the medicines at lower cost but at a similar rate to all over the country (Lopert Gleeson, 2013). So, it can be said that the common people victim in the midst of the companies and the government which is very common in political matters. Give two suitable arguments in support of your position Ans. I think that the competition between different countries regarding price regulation matter is very critical and delicate. At one point of time, we can observe the cost of medicine is higher in USA whereas after some time the expenditure becomes highest in Canada (Lorenzoni, Belloni Sassi, 2014). We cannot become stagnant in one viewpoint. The people who are associated in politics and in medicine companies manipulate the whole thing. It is true that Price Discrimination policies is not applicable and or correct everywhere. Nevertheless, in countries like Mexico where most of the people come from very poor background, most of the people have to fight for very trivial things. Therefore, it is evitable that most of them cannot pay money if the prices of the medicine become high. Medicine is a very essential necessity that is required in everyday life; people do not have the option but to buy medicines. Therefore, in this context price discrimination policy is very much required. Wh en there is sale of medicines, price discrimination policy in which in most cases the medicine is sold at a very low rate the companies generates much profit and the people also gets much benefit due to this. Canada is at far better position in economic terms than Mexico and Latin America countries and African countries. Nevertheless, the financial status of Canada is not similar to USA. Moreover, Canada does not have authority like USA to regulate the prices of the medicine. In fact, the most important thing is that the present cost of the medicines is not much lower than the USA. Canada is perhaps the second highest country in context to the costs of the medicine pills and ointments and people belonging to the higher economy background do not have any problem in investing a huge amount of money (Marchildon, 2013). Nevertheless, the problem always lies with the middle class people. Finally, it can be said that the politicians and other drug companies should look after the problem o f the common people in terms of medicines and other essential things (Price Underhill, 2013). Reference Conti, R. M., Padula, W. V., Larson, R. A. (2016). Changing the cost of care for chronic myeloid leukemia: the availability of generic imatinib in the USA and the EU. InChronic Myeloid Leukemia(pp. 231-255). Springer International Publishing. Costa-Font, J., McGuire, A., Varol, N. (2014). Price regulation and relative delays in generic drug adoption.Journal of health economics,38, 1-9. Lopert, R., Gleeson, D. (2013). The high price of free trade: US trade agreements and access to medicines.The Journal of Law, Medicine Ethics,41(1), 199-223. Lorenzoni, L., Belloni, A., Sassi, F. (2014). Health-care expenditure and health policy in the USA versus other high-spending OECD countries.The Lancet,384(9937), 83-92. Marchildon, G. P. (2013).Health systems in transition: Canada(Vol. 7, No. 3). University of Toronto Press. Price, W. D., Underhill, L. (2013). Application of laws, policies, and guidance from the United States and Canada to the regulation of food and feed derived from genetically modified crops: interpretation of composition data.Journal of agricultural and food chemistry,61(35), 8349-8355.
Sunday, December 1, 2019
What means does Alan Bennett use to help us to understand the truth about Lesley in Her Big Chance Essay Example
What means does Alan Bennett use to help us to understand the truth about Lesley in Her Big Chance Essay Talking heads was a BBC drama television series produced in the late 1980s. The first six monologues were screened in 1987 and a further six were broadcasted in 1998. The monologues give us access to peoples most private thoughts. The individual tells their side of the story. Sometimes they reveal a lot more than they mean to, leaving the audience to investigate their lives further and piece together clues from what they say to create a character in their mind. Each monologue shows us a varied life. They are all melancholy and dramatic. These monologues also give us an insight of everyday British lives in the 80s. Her Big Chance is about young imprudent women named Lesley. Her obsessive career as a professional actress takes over her whole life so it becomes not just a job, but her world. She ends up being seduced by many men and manipulated into things she doesnt really want to do, leading to her acting in an abominable manner. The most tragic element being her acceptance of this treatment, believing it is part of her much admired career. These twelve monologues were written by Alan Bennett, born in 1934. He went to Oxford University and by 1960 he was at his prime. Aspects of Bennetts life can be found in his monologues. During the 30s Britain had a strong sense of community. The nation was hard working but was also male dominated. There were strict morals such as girls having to be married before sexual intercourse. We can see some opinions from the 30s reflected in Her Big Chance. For example, Lesley sees it as normal for men to push her around and abuse her. Bennetts early years were spent during World War Two. This harsh upbringing means he would have encountered shortages, caution, great fear and perhaps at times boredom. The audience will notice that young Lesleys life in the beginning is merriment and over exaggerated. This could represent what Bennetts childhood lacked, and the things he desperately wanted in his younger years. Bennett says at the begging of talking heads he has met many Lesleys, evoking the idea that the monologues are semi-auto biographies. The monologues were cheap to produce. During the 80s the BBC was cutting back their drama budget; therefore Talking Heads was the perfect series to put on air. The series was produced using just two cameras and each monologue took only six hours studio time to create. We will write a custom essay sample on What means does Alan Bennett use to help us to understand the truth about Lesley in Her Big Chance specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on What means does Alan Bennett use to help us to understand the truth about Lesley in Her Big Chance specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on What means does Alan Bennett use to help us to understand the truth about Lesley in Her Big Chance specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Compared to earlier high quality dramas, Talking Heads was a successful drama on a tight budget. Thatcherism played an immense influential role in peoples lives in the 80s. When Margaret Thatcher became the first women prime minister in 1979, the idea of community was beginning to break down. People became more independent. We see the feeling of independence in Lesleys character at times. The feeling of freedom spread and with it raised the divorce rate. Society became hard working but selfish. It was now believed that you could do anything if you tried hard enough. The idea of fame became exceedingly popular. Lesleys opinions and morals are linked to this reforming society and culture. She believes that if you give a lot you get a lot. She also thinks she is famous. Although the equal rights act being introduced a few years before Thatchers rise to power, Britain still held many aspects of a male dominated nation. We can see this when the men in Her Big Chance manipulate Lesley into doing things she is reluctant to do. However, she still obeys them. This drama is called Her Big Chance, but why did Bennett choose this title? I believe the purpose of this title is to mislead the audience. Bennett has used irony here to get our brains thinking about various meanings within the title. It holds many meanings and represents both Bennetts and Lesleys view of the situation in the monologue. When the audience first read the title, they presume this drama will be about a person, who has come across an opportunity that could change their life forever in a positive way. Once we have read the monologue thoroughly and understood Lesleys character, the titles hidden meanings are revealed. As we see in the monologue, due to her lack of understanding, Lesley always considers her role in the pornographic movie as a useful experience and never regrets coming across the job ( as we see when Lesley tells us shes glad she went to the party because thats how she got the part). So the title, if taken literally, represents Lesleys interpretation of the monologue. She really did see this as Her Big Chance and still does. However, Bennett could have written the title with the intention of a sarcastic meaning. This would be supporting both Bennetts and the audiences personal view of the situation. This wasnt really Her (Lesleys) Big Chance, his just making fun of her. This title gets the audience thinking like Lesley, in the beginning. By the end of the drama, we see the true Lesley, and think like Bennett. This is what happens in reality when we build a relationship with someone. Firstly we go by the persons opinion of them self. We then begin to find out their true personality and our view of them as they reveal more about their past and we watch their behaviour and interaction with others in general. Bennett begins this monologue with a dramatic and highly shocking opening. This rather bizarre comment by Lesley helps the audience understand more about her ludicrously stupid character. The first line she says is, I shot a man last week. In the back. I miss it now, it was really interesting. Its only the first line, and the audience has already been drawn in. I think Bennett wrote this cold and peculiar opening line to get the audience interested in this mysterious character encouraging us to read on and find more about this situation and this persons psychotic and sadistic personality. The word interesting evokes this image. The frequent use of fall stops and comers in this sentence builds up the tension even more so. However, the audience still have more unemotional and evil comments in store. This stone- hearted person then says Still, Im not going to get depressed about. Bennett seems to be turning the audience against Lesley by infuriating us and inflicting hatred towards her character. The idea that someone could be so heartless about a murder they just committed is almost unbelievable. She continues with the story, telling is more unwelcoming comments. Suddenly she talks about crossroads and her acting career, this disappoints the audience a little but without this opening, we would miss out on many aspects of Lesleys character. The audience see this being about a woman whose life is life is action filled and exciting. When we encounter Lesley getting a part in a pornographic, we are just bewildered; this was not what we were expecting after reading this opening about a cold-blooded murder. As we read further on we find out the truth, and the opening reveals some of Lesleys hidden characteristics. Lesley revels the truth about this opening. The audience see that this murder was acted out by Lesleys character, Travis, He spins round. Travis fires the harpoon and you see the spear come out of his back. This over exaggerated opening shows us Lesleys incapability of drawing a line between home life and work. She appears to be trying to intimidate the audience giving her the feeling she has authority over us, and all the characters in the monologue, reassuring herself. She is abused so much in the monologue, that maybe she doesnt want to risk being mistreated in this way again. She believes this threatening opening is the way to stop this. Bennett could also be trying to tell us that Lesley is ashamed; shes covering up and manipulating the immoral truth so it doesnt look as negative. Throughout the monologue, the audience will notice Lesley insulting other characters. Lesley rarely sees when she is being mistreated, but when she does recognise this foul treatment she snipes back with a harsh insult. Not only does she snipe when she feels bullied, but also when she feels her authority has been overruled by someone else. This can be seen when Lesleys water skiing role is given to another women. She tells us she is Pleasant enough, but doesnt look a bit like me (her), clearly bettering herself. She then makes comparisons between the new girl and herself. Im quite petite, only she is on the large side and whereas my hair is auburn, hers is defiantly ginger. Lesley emphasised the fact the new girl is ginger, which is clearly an insult. Its obvious Lesley is jealous of this woman for getting her much wanted role, because she is bettering herself by insulting her. If Lesley was really a professional like she says she is, she wouldnt be sulking about a small part like this. Bennett is showing us here her immaturity. Maybe Lesley has glimpsed the truth that she is not really a great actress and so makes nasty comments about the womens appearance, reassuring herself that although she may be the better actress, she has the better appearance. Lesley never, even at the end of the monologue understands her role in this movie. Bennett is showing us here her stupidity. At the beginning of the monologue when she is talking about the party, she tells us that shes glad I (she) did (went) because thats how I (she) got the audition This just sums- up Lesleys ridiculously stupid personality. She has had a week to think this over and still, she doesnt understand that she was used and manipulated into acting in a pornographic film. The director Simon asked to see her in her bra and panties They forced her to apply sun-tan lotion while topless, and yet has failed to see the film for what it is. But why? I believe that Bennett is not just showing her stupidity here, but her almost identical personality with Travis. Travis goes around topless and draws male attention, Lesley sleeps with three men during the monologue. This is just one similarity. Travis is abused by men in the monologue, Lesley tells us that Travis was hit my her boyfriend at an earlier junction Lesley is always mistreated by men, by saying you knew he was my boyfriend because at an earlier junction youd see him hit me across the face she is really telling us that in her eyes thats how men treat woman, and that its a fact of life. Could Bennett be highlighting the problem of sexist men in the 80s and how Britain was male dominated? Being so like Travis means that all of this seems normal to Lesley. There was nothing suspicious about having to act someone sleeping around and filming sexual intercourse scenes. Lesley does this in real life, sleeps around. As the audience sees, Lesley is constantly manipulated and abused such as the comment from Scot Lets face it, dear. Youre not used to working. Why dont you bring you knitting? and many other insults throughout the monologue. Lesley also tells us that Travis is a good-time girl, although you never see me having a good time. This is just like Lesley, she tells us about this part and how she shot a man in the beginning, but we never see her having any fun. This is why Lesley fails to see anything wrong with this film, she doesnt draw a line between acting and real life as Scot says to Lesley when she says it back to real life he replies some of us never left it. Showing, characters in the monologue also see this. This conversation also shows us that Lesley, although she constantly tells us she is, is not a professional. Professional actresses do not live their part. They dont go around sleeping with their directors like Lesley. However we can see why Lesley fails to see the film for what it is. If we was to get an acting job, and our character we played was like us, we wouldnt see anything wrong in it because we would be insulting our self if we said anything negative about the character. Lesley agrees with Gi nter that the film is very moral She wouldnt want to say it isnt because that would be calling herself immoral. Although that is exactly what she is, she wants to hide away form the truth, she only likes to hear what she wants to hear. Lesley manipulates information to help us understand more about her character. The audience can see Lesley manipulating information when she goes to a distant friends party. She tells us that she surprise(s) her friends by not being much of a party goer. She uses the excuse that she would rather curl up in a book The audience never see these friends and she gives no names, and it is clear that Lesley is extremely lonely and has no one. Lying in this way shows us she is ashamed and embarrassed of who she is and desperate to make new friends. She goes up to Spud as soon as she sees him. Why isnt she talking to her friends? If she had any she wouldnt have been on her own in the first place. She uses the excuse would rather curl up in a book, because she probably never been to a party. Lesley goes into so much detail about it that its obvious she is excited about it proving she has probably never been to one before in her life. Lesley being manipulated by so many men proves she is too trusting, but still thinks shes better than them. We can see this when she sleeps with Spud after the party. Spud and Lesley get talking about a film project Spud is working on. He asks Lesley if she is an actress, Lesley replies Interesting you should ask because as a matter of fact I am. The audience have just herd about her past experience on crossroads. She seemed interested in anything except acting out her part as an extra. Even this small role witch did not involve any speech, was too difficult it seems for Lesley to manage. All she spoke about was the layout and the props. This just proves to the audience she is not a Professional actress like she says she is. She is just an extra and she cant even sit and eat a meal. If Lesley was a professional she would have gone into detail with Spud about her possible role but she doesnt, evoking the idea she is far too trusting and an easy target. When Spud comes back, he tells Lesley that the director is seeing possible replacements at an address in west London. He tells Lesley that he is based in Ealing which is also west London. Although he has just pointed out, Lesleys stupidity has got the better of her and still hasnt worked out why Spud is telling her this. The audience by now are beginning to see what he is after. Lesley tells him that her stamping ground is Bromley for her sins. He replies with thats a fairish cry. Why not bed down at my place The audience automatically knows what he wants and now, so does Lesley. The audience are thankful and relived when she says Thank you kind sir, but I didnt fall of a Christmas tree yesterday, meaning I am not stupid. This quote can also represent Lesleys humorous language. These over exaggerated terms clearly show that Lesley is trying to appear well-educated and sophisticated. Maybe to gain authority over Spud? It seems that its a constant battle with Lesley too be better and higher than everyone, she does this through her language and snipes. But we and Spud see right through this. He covers this accusation up by telling her he has a son in hotel management and a daughter with one kidney and he has his sister-in-law staying. Most women by now would have walked away. Most people wouldnt even sleep at a strangers house. But this is Lesley, and she does. Then we are then told His vest had electrician all over it. She dont see the sister-in-law, and she comes up with the conclusion that she is still tracing around Olympia Why, didnt Lesley walk out when she noticed that these were all lies being told? This shows us both her stupidity and her trustworthy attitude are negative characteristics. Saying his vest had electrician all over it is heightening her status. She is associating him as a person from the lower class. Showing she feels guilty and needs to make herself appear better than him, even though she has just been tricked into having sexual intercourse with a complete stranger. This lack of understanding makes the audience cringe with embarrassment. Gi nter soon learns how to manipulate Lesley. Throughout the monologue he pressures her into doing many things she is reluctant to do. At the end of the monologue, Lesley asks Gi nter if she was Travis? And whether he was pleased with (her) my performance? Its the next line that revels and basically sums up Lesleys exceedingly foolish and immoral personality. Gi nter reassures Lesley that if someone is a bad actress (he) I cant sleep with them. The audience find this quotation exasperating. We have given so many chances to Lesley, forgiving her. However, she continues acting in this disgraceful manner. Here, Gi nter is manipulating Lesley with complements; once Lesley feels part of a group she will do anything. This shows the audience that what Lesley is really lacking, is the feeling she wanted. After this, she tells us Gi nter is a real artist even though she has just been manipulated for the third time into sleeping with a man. She usually insults men after they have tricked her. Gi nter is an exception, now she feels wanted by someone, she is nice to them. Lesley is so unintelligent that she fails to see what Gi nter is doing to her. Bennett has shown us here that Lesley will do anything if complemented. Bennett manages to get a serious message across, and still make this a comedy at the same time. He does this by Lesleys use of film parlance and pretentious use of language. Not only does it add humour into the monologue, it also helps us understand yet more about Lesleys complicated character. An example of unintentional humorous language is when Nigel says were cooking on gas. He says this as a metaphor. Lesley takes this literally and replies oh. I prefer electricity. By doing this Bennett is entertaining the audience and stopping us from feeling tedious. It shows us Lesleys persistent failure to understand everyday terms. Lesleys ability to slip in a few specialist film words in her everyday speech such as we slated for the part and we wrapped about six show audience that acting is part of Lesleys everyday life and is her only real interest. She explains what each term means. When she says (thats film parlance for packed up) she is patronising and insulting the audiences intelligence. Her ability to be able to slip in these technical terms s also tells us she is very dedicated her career. Bennett then makes the audience see this is not the case. When Lesley is talking about her experience on crossroads, we can see that acting is not her main priority. She discusses toilet and food preparations. She then wonders why people dont give her serious parts. The truth is she is not a great actress people just say it to win her over. The audience find Lesleys over exaggerated terms such as Thank you kind sir also quite amusing. This use of language clearly shows that Lesley does not get out much. This monologue has helped me understand more about the abuse everyday British women suffered in 1980s. By using these techniques, Bennett has revealed Lesleys darkest secrets and taught us her true personality. The dramatic opening shows the audience that women wanted to escape this treatment. They acted as if everything was fine and that they werent being mistreated by men. Lesleys character is representing many British women at this time. We feel sorry for Lesley at first, but her stupidity turns us against her. The monologue is quite upsetting; the audience laugh at Lesley because of her pretentious use of language and over exaggerated terms as well as all the characters. Sometimes we cant help but feel sorry for her. Its when she shows little sign of regret we start loosing sympathy. Even a week later she still doesnt regret being part of this film. Bennett defiantly succeeded at showing us this. He does in a clever way; he doesnt quote these ideas in directly but adds a few hints in throughout the monologue.
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
F. Scott Fitzgerald - A Timeless Writer Who Was a Man of His Time essays F. Scott Fitzgerald is best known today as the author of the classic novel The Great Gatsby. The novel tells the story of Jay Gatsby, a poor and obscure Midwesterner who makes his fortune as a bootlegger to win the heart of his childhood sweetheart. One character says of Gatsby that he made himself up, in other words, that through creating a false personal mythology, by wearing fancy clothes, and buying fancy houses, Gatsby unsuccessfully tried to create a new identity for himself. The same could have been said of his creator, although unlike Gatsby, Fitzgerald had a far more ironic view of the world as a writer. He ironically chronicled Ivy League and elite Long Island society observed with wonder by the narrator of Fitzgeralds greatest book. Fitzgerald was born in the American heartland, in St. Paul Minnesota on September 24, 1896. His father Edward Fitzgerald was a failed furniture salesman and his mother Mary was an Irish immigrant. (Willet, 2006) Both were Catholic and thanks to his mothers inheritance, solidly middle-class, although it is said his father drank more at the office than he worked. The young Fitzgerald excelled as a writer at the Catholic school where he studied, but always felt somewhat out of his social element because of his mothers Irish birth when he ventured into the realms of the real St. Paul elite, such as at his local dancing school. (Martine, 1981, p.3) Fitzgerald got into Princeton but he was not particularly studious. He struggled academically. He wrote for the Princeton Triangle Club musicals, the Princeton Tiger humor magazine and the Nassau Literary Magazine. He was placed on academic probation. As he was unlikely to graduate he eventually dropped out of school to join the army. (Bruccoli, 1994) When the army stationed him near Montgomery, Alabama in 1918, Scott met and fell in love Zelda, who was later to become his wife. When he later proposed, Zelda initially rebuffed Fi...
Friday, November 22, 2019
IUPAC Atomic Weights of the Elements List This is the 2013 list of atomic weights of the elements in increasing atomic number, as accepted by the IUPAC. The table is based on the Standard Atomic Weights Revised v2 (Sept 24,2013). The list includes the 2013Ã changes to the atomic weights of 19 elements: arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, cesium, cobalt, fluorine, gold, holmium, manganese, molybdenum, niobium, phosphorus, praseodymium, scandium,Ã selenium, thorium, thulium and yttrium. These values remain current until the IUPAC sees the need to revise them. Values given by the [a;b] notation highlights the range of atomic weights for the element. For these elements, the atomic weight is dependent on the physical and chemical history of the element. The interval reflects the minimum (a) and the maximum (b) values for the element.Values given in chevron brackets (e.g., Fm 257) are the mass numbers of the longest-lived isotope of elements that do not have stable nuclides. However, atomic weights are provided for Th, Pa, and U because these elements have a characteristic abundance in the earths crust. For detailed element facts, consult theÃ Periodic TableÃ for individual elements. Atomic Number - Symbol - Name - Atomic Weight 1Ã HÃ - Hydrogen - [1.007 84; 1.008 11]2Ã He - Helium - 4.002 602(2)3Ã Li - Lithium - [6.938; 6.997]4Ã Be - Beryllium - 9.012 1831(5)5Ã BÃ - Boron - [10.806; 10.821]6Ã CÃ - Carbon - [12.0096; 12.0116]7Ã NÃ - Nitrogen - [14.006 43; 14.007 28]8Ã OÃ - Oxygen - [15.999 03; 15.999 77]9Ã FÃ - Fluorine - 18.998 403 163(6)10 Ne - Neon - 20.1797(6)11 Na - Sodium - 22.989 769 28(2)12 Mg - Magnesium - [24.304, 24.307]13 Al - Aluminium - 26.981 5385(7)14 Si - Silicon - [28.084; 28.086]15 PÃ - Phosphorus - 30.973 761 998(5)16 SÃ - Sulfur - [32.059; 32.076]17 Cl - Chlorine - [35.446; 35.457]18 Ar - Argon - 39.948(1)19 KÃ - Potassium - 39.0983(1)20 Ca - Calcium - 40.078(4)21 Sc - Scandium - 44.955 908(5)22 Ti - Titanium - 47.867(1)23 VÃ - Vanadium - 50.9415(1)24 Cr - Chromium - 51.9961(6)25 Mn - Manganese - 54.938 044(3)26 Fe - Iron - 55.845(2)27 Co - Cobalt - 58.933 194(4)28 Ni - Nickel 58.6934(4)29 Cu - Copper - 63.546(3)30 Zn - Zinc - 65.3 8(2)31 Ga - Gallium - 69.723(1)32 Ge - Germanium - 72.630(8)33 As - Arsenic - 74.921 595(6)34 Se - Selenium - 78.971(8)35 Br - Bromine - [79.901, 79.907]36 Kr - Krypton - 83.798(2)37 Rb - Rubidium - 85.4678(3)38 Sr - Strontium - 87.62(1)39 YÃ - Yttrium - 88.905 84(2)40 Zr - Zirconium - 91.224(2)41 Nb - Niobium - 92.906 37(2)42 Mo - Molybdenum - 95.95(1)43 Tc - Technetium - 9844 Ru - Ruthenium - 101.07(2)45 Rh - Rhodium - 102.905 50(2)46 Pd - Palladium - 106.42(1)47 Ag - Silver - 107.8682(2)48 Cd - Cadmium - 112.414(4)49 In - Indium - 114.818(1)50 Sn - Tin - 118.710(7)51 Sb - Antimony - 121.760(1)52 Te - Tellurium - 127.60(3)53 IÃ - Iodine - 126.904 47(3)54 Xe - Xenon - 131.293(6)55 Cs - Cesium - 132.905 451 96(6)56 Ba - Barium - 137.327(7)57 La - Lanthanum - 138.905 47(7)58 Ce - Cerium - 140.116(1)59 Pr - Praseodymium - 140.907 66(2)60 Nd - Neodymium - 144.242(3)61 Pm - Promethium - 14562 Sm - Samarium - 150.36(2)63 Eu - Europium - 151.964(1)64 Gd - Gadolinium - 157.25(3)65 Tb - Terbium - 158.925 35(2)66 Dy - Dysprosium - 162.500(1)67 Ho - Holmium - 164.930 33(2)68 Er - Erbium - 167.259(3)69 Tm - Thulium - 168.934 22(2)70 Yb - Ytterbium - 173.054(5)71 Lu - Lutetium - 174.9668(1)72 Hf - Hafnium - 178.49(2)73 Ta - Tantalum - 180.947 88(2)74 W - Tungsten - 183.84(1)75 Re - Rhenium - 186.207(1)76 Os - Osmium - 190.23(3)77 Ir - Iridium - 192.217(3)78 Pt - Platinum - 195.084(9)79 Au - Gold - 196.966 569(5)80 Hg - Mercury - 200.592(3)81 Tl - Thallium - [204.382; 204.385]82 Pb - Lead - 207.2(1)83 Bi - Bismuth - 208.980 40(1)84 Po - Polonium - 20985 At - Astatine - 21086 Rn - Radon - 22287 Fr - Francium - 22388 Ra - Radium - 22689 Ac - Actinium - 22790 Th - Thorium - 232.037 7(4)91 Pa - Protactinium - 231.035 88(2)92 UÃ - Uranium - 238.028 91(3)93 Np - Neptunium - 23794 Pu - Plutonium - 24495 Am - Americium - 24396 Cm - Curium - 24797 Bk - Berkelium - 24798 Cf - Californium - 25199 Es - Einsteinium - 252100 Fm - Fermium - 257101 Md - Mendelevium - 258102 No - Nobelium - 259103 Lr - Lawrencium - 262104 Rf - Rutherfordium - 267105 Db - Dubnium - 268106 Sg - Seaborgium - 271107 Bh - Bohrium - 272108 Hs - Hassium - 270109 Mt - Meitnerium - 276110 Ds - Darmstadtium - 281111 Rg - Roentgenium - 280112 Cn - Copernicium - 285113 Uut - Ununtrium - 284114 Fl - Flerovium - 289115 Uup - Ununpentium - 288116 Lv - Livermorium - 293118 Uuo - Ununoctium - 294
Thursday, November 21, 2019
The effects of the 2008 financial crisis on the investment in the Gulf area and Qatar - Research Paper Example While closely evaluating the investment activities of Gulf countries including Qatar during 2008 financial crisis and post-recession period, it seems that the global financial crisis did not affect the Gulf regionÃ¢â¬â¢s investment sector much when compared to other regions. Recession 2008: Impact on the Arab Region The crisis affected most of the Arab region also causing a significant decline in financial markets. Despite the regionÃ¢â¬â¢s potential economic sources like oil revenue, real estate investment, tourism, and housing, countries in the region became vulnerable to an economic slowdown albeit at a slower pace. The main reason was that the regionÃ¢â¬â¢s economic activities did not involve productive actions which could reroute the wealth surplus into establishing strong industrial and human skill bases. Also, the region as a whole failed to absorb income and investment on a multiple basis. The results of the downturn were visible in the form of declining living standard s, increasing inequality, growing unemployment rate etc. Migrant workers were the most affected segment in almost every GCC country. The main investors in the region included but not limited to The Kuwait Investment Authority (KIA), the Abu Dhabi Investment Authority, Singapore GIC, the Saudi prince al-Waleed Bin Talal, Kuwait, and Qatar. The outcome for their investment in Corporates like Citigroup, Merrill Lynch, Barclays, and Credit Suisse was not satisfactory or even inflicted great loss on the investors. The crashes in the UK, U.S financial markets affected the Middle Eastern stock markets as well. On September 15th 2008, the Saudi Arabian stock market fell by 6.5%, Doha 7%, Kuwait 3% and Abu Dabi 4.35% (Casa Arabe). However, since the gulf region had already learned lessons from the recession of the 1980s and the oil price fall, they were prepared to confront the new downturn unlike many other developed nations. Evidently, the impacts of the 1980sÃ¢â¬â¢ price fall were more intense and rapid than the recent one. The bitter experiences of 1980s taught the GCC countries to respond more flexibly to the new crisis. The difference was that the strategic decisions taken recently were of long-term significance whereas the first ones involved rapid actions. Better fiscal policies and the private sectorsÃ¢â¬â¢ less dependence on state spending also contributed to the relatively sustainable position of the region. The direct result of this strategy was that all rich GCC countries namely Qatar, Kuwait, and Saudi had sufficient overseas assets to carry out their annual programs at least for a short term. Post-Recession Scenario One of the post-recession trends in the Gulf investment sector is the boom of real estate market. When compared other sectors, investing in developed market real estate seemed secure and profitable for many Arab investors, among which Qatar held the prominent position. As Roubini reports, Qatar unlike its Emirati or Kuwaiti counterparts s ustained with lower loan growth, lower profitability and thereby weakening balance sheets (Ã¢â¬Å"Are there..Ã¢â¬ ). The government bought Ã¢â¬Å"stakes in local banks, as well as property and equity holdings on the balance sheets of local banksÃ¢â¬ and the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"sovereign wealth fund was among the first to return to significant foreign investmentÃ¢â¬ (Roubini). In fact, the world overcame the issues of the 2008 recession, mainly led by Asian and Middle East countries. For instance, subsequent to the
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
RF Energy Harvesting - - Literature review Example Energy harvesting allows for recycling and harvesting of wasted ambient electromagnetic energy to cater for the energy requirements of devices suing wireless technology such as wireless personal area networks (WPANs), wireless local networks (WLANs) and Cellular networks. In RF energy harvesting, electrical power is transmitted from one location to another without the application of an artificial conductor. As such, there is a significant requirement for rectennas to be present in the circuit as they important in the harvesting of ambient RF power. The rectennas should be preconditioned for efficient energy harvesting by ensuring good performance at low incident power density, relative high rectification efficiency at wide bandwidth and arbitrary polarization. The advantage of harvesting energy using rectennas is in its ability to generate unlimited energy due to it unlimited lifetime without the need of replacement as in batteries. Furthermore, the energy generated is green and ther efore suitable or energy sustainability (Suh & Chang, 2002). The term rectenna refers to a rectifying antenna that serves to combine the functions of high efficient rectifier circuits and an antennae at microwave power transmission systems. Rectennas were developed with the aim of completing the wireless power transmission system. The purpose of the rectennas is to convert electromagnetic wave into DC power after being received. Rectennas can exists in the their simplest form where they consist of multiple receiving antennae elements that enter a low pass filter circuits that is usually terminated at certain rectifying diodes. In RF energy harvesting, a rectenna is used due to its desirable characteristics; the efficiency of energy harvesting resulting from conversion of microwave power to DC power can reach 85% and they can be designed to cater for different desirable frequencies capable of harvesting RF power that is easy to design and economical
Saturday, November 16, 2019
The Dales to the Border Essay The Northumberland and Durham coalfield is the second most important in England. The large reserves of coal, which are used to operate electric power stations, made the North grow enormously. Iron and steel: there is a large production of iron and steel, which provides the raw material for machinery, heavy engineering and ship building. Textile industry: the woolen industry is largely concentrated in a small group of towns in Yorkshire, among the hills and valleys of the Pennines. The cotton industry is situated in Lancashire. Chemical industry: it is expanding rapidly. The basic elements are: salt, potassium, calcium and petroleum. The end products are: fibers, plastics and fertilizers. 3) Tourism: there are holiday resorts in the Lake District. There are also some historical places in the North. Coal mining Coal mining Tourism Tourism Textile industry and farming Textile industry and farming Important cities: York Yorvik was the capital of a Viking kingdom. In medieval times, it was the second city of the land. In York tourists can find glorious churches, ancient narrow streets, old houses and welcoming pubs. Micklegate in York, England The walls surrounding the city of York are fine examples of medieval fortification. The walls remain largely intact. Micklegate, spanning the road to the south, was one of four gates guarding the main roads in and out of the city. In the Yorkshire moors lies the village of Haworth, where there is a parsonage that is said to be haunted by the ghosts of the Brontes. Along the ancient street the ghosts of the three sisters, Charlotte, Emily and Anne walk among the crowds. Branwell, their brother, still sits silently in the corner of and old pub. Leeds: It is an industrial city which is famous for its clothing and leather industry. It is a river port (the Aire) and it has a well-known university. Leeds, a city located in northern England on the Aire River, is a major center for the manufacture and wholesale trade of clothing. Carlisle It is an important route centre. HadrianÃ¢â¬â¢s Wall is a historical landmark. This wall, which stretches from Newcastle to Carlisle, was built by the Romans to control commerce as customs office and to protect people from the barbarian invasions. Castle in Carlisle HadrianÃ¢â¬â¢s Wall, ancient Roman stone and masonry wall, constructed to protect the northern boundary of Roman Britain against hostile tribes. Emperor Hadrian of Rome ordered its construction around ad 122. The wall extended 117 km from Solway Firth to the mouth of the Tyne River and was about 6 m high and about 2. 4 m wide. The wall also marked the frontier of Roman civil jurisdiction. A few sections of Hadrians Wall remain standing in present-day Great Britain. Island Holy Island, also called Lindisfarne, a small island off the coast of Northumberland, England, 5 sq km in area. Holy Island is connected with the mainland at low tide by a causeway. A monastery was established on Holy Island in 635 by Saint Aidan and a group of Celtic monks, who produced the elaborately decorated Lindisfarne Gospels. The island became the religious center of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria. In 1093 the monastery was reestablished by Benedictine monks from Durham, and the island has since been continuously occupied. Today, Holy Island is a bird sanctuary along with the neighboring rock islets of Farne.