Tuesday, August 25, 2020

How to Buy a Computer :: Essays Papers

The most effective method to Buy a Computer Despite the fact that PCs are an incredible mechanical deal, you can in any case get singed, and it's ideal to have an arrangement before getting one. Numerous PC customers commit these errors they, purchase a PC, at that point they get a few projects, at that point they figure out how to utilize the projects, at that point they find out about the PC itself. This is actually in reverse. I might want to make you through these four strides, in the right request; get familiar with somewhat about PCs, get familiar with somewhat about projects, select the sort of projects you need, and how to pick a PC. A PC is not the same as different machines since it needs a program to instruct it. A few organizations make PCs, while others compose programs. This implies if a specific sort of PC gets well known, more projects will be composed for it, and this will make the machine much progressively famous. In the long run one PC has become the norm. In reality this PC is the IBM clone. In turning into the business standard most projects are composed for IBM’s and you have a more prominent choice and decent variety to choose from. Another mainstream PC model is Macintosh. Up until now, no organization other than Apple makes this PC, for the most part since Apple keeps different organizations from doing as such. As you would expect, in light of the fact that just one organization constructs the Macintosh, it is more costly than the IBM clone. Then again, numerous Macintosh proprietors think that its simpler to learn and utilize. I will concentrate on IBM clone PCs since they are the norm. A PC needs to do numerous errands. It needs to acknowledge your sources of info, either from a console or a mouse, it needs to do some preparing, both rationale and math, under the course of a program, it needs to show its outcomes, it needs to keep some data briefly in its memory, and it needs to store data forever on plate drives. At the point when you search for a PC, you will need to see the size of the hard circle in gigabytes (at least 10 suggested), the size and nature of the showcase screen (17 inch suggested), the sort of processor (Pentium III suggested), the measure of memory (128 megabytes suggested), the clock speed (100 MHz suggested), and the modem for jumping on the Internet (56K suggested). The PC's clock keeps everything synchronized, and for the most part the quicker the clock, the quicker the PC can process data.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Freedom In The United States Essays - Freedom Of Expression

Opportunity In The United States Essays - Freedom Of Expression Opportunity in the United States No other majority rule society on the planet licenses individual opportunities to the level of the United States of America. Inside the most recent sixty years, American courts, particularly the Supreme Court, have built up a lot of lawful teachings that completely ensure all structures of the opportunity of articulation. With regards to assessing the degree to which we make the most of the chance to communicate our suppositions, a few citizenry might be blameworthy of damaging the limits of the First Amendment by freely affronting others through foulness or prejudice. Americans have built up an unmistakable aura toward the opportunity of articulation since the beginning. The First Amendment unmistakably voices an extraordinary American regard close to the opportunity of religion. It likewise keeps the administration from condensing the ability to speak freely, or of the press; or the privilege of the individuals serenely to amass and to request of the Government for a change of complaints. Since the early history of our nation, the security of essential opportunities has been absolutely critical to Americans. In Langston Hughes' sonnet, Opportunity, he stresses the battle to appreciate the opportunities that he knows are legitimately his. He mirrors the American want for opportunity now when he says, I don't need my opportunity when I'm dead. I can't live on tomorrow's bread. He perceives the requirement for opportunity completely without bargain or on the other hand dread. I think Langston Hughes catches the embodiment of the American outsiders' mission for opportunity in his sonnet, Opportunity's Plow. He precisely depicts American's as showing up with only dreams furthermore, building America with the expectations of finding more prominent opportunity or opportunity just because. He delineates how individuals all things considered cooperated for one reason: opportunity. I chose Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451 as an imaginary case of the indecencies of oversight in a world that is turning out to be uneducated. In this book, the legislature persuades the open that book perusing is malicious in light of the fact that it spreads unsafe feelings and shakes individuals against the administration. Most by far of individuals acknowledge this control of articulation beyond a shadow of a doubt and are substance to see what's more, hear just the administration's purposeful publicity. I discovered this upsetting however practical. Bradbury's shrouded restriction to this type of oversight was clear all through the book lastly won in the end when his fundamental character opposed the act of consuming books. Among the numerous types of fights are pickets, strikes, open talks and rallies. As of late in New Jersey, in excess of a thousand network activists energized to draft a human spending that puts the requirements of poor people and impaired as a top need. Rallies are an viable methods for individuals to utilize their opportunities successfully to bring about change from the legislature. The right to speak freely of discourse is coneztly being tested with no guarantees prove in an ongoing legal dispute where a Gloucester County school area controlled audits of two R-evaluated films from a school paper. Prevalent Court Judge, Robert E. Francis decided that the understudy's privileges were abused under the state Constitution. I feel this is an incredible forward leap for understudies' privileges since it limits publication control of school papers by instructors and permits understudies to print what they feel is significant. A recently proposed charge (A-557) would forestall school authorities from controlling the substance of understudy distributions. Pundits of the charge feel that understudy writers might be excessively youthful to underezd the duties that accompany free discourse. This is an admirable sentiment; in any case, it would give a magnificent chance to them to learn about their First Amendment rights that ensures free discourse and opportunity of the press. In his initiation address to Monmouth College graduates, Educator Alan Dershowitz of Harvard Law School protected the expansive option to free discourse. He expressed, My message to you graduates is to attest your privileges, to utilize them mindfully and intensely, to restrict prejudice, to contradict sexism, to restrict homophobia and bias of all sorts and to do as such inside the soul of the First Amendment, not by making a special case to it. I concur that one should don't hesitate to talk straightforwardly as long as it doesn't legitimately or in a roundabout way lead to the mischief of others. One

Friday, August 7, 2020

Medications to Treat ADHD in Children and Adults

Medications to Treat ADHD in Children and Adults ADHD Treatment Print Medications to Treat ADHD in Children and Adults By Keath Low Keath Low, MA, is a therapist and clinical scientist with the Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities at the University of North Carolina. She specializes in treatment of ADD/ADHD. Learn about our editorial policy Keath Low Updated on August 10, 2019 ADHD Overview Symptoms Causes Diagnosis Treatment Living With In Children Paul Bradbury/OJO Images/Getty Images In addition to behavioral therapies, medications for your ADHD can be very helpful in reducing impulsiveness and hyperactivity  and increasing focus and attention. Lets gain an understanding of prescription medications people with ADHD can use to feel better and improve their symptoms. Stimulants Stimulant medications  are the most commonly prescribed medications for ADHD and have been found to be very effective in alleviating  ADHD symptoms. Stimulants  increase the level of the neurotransmitter dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain. This improves inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity in people with ADHD. While stimulants are the classic medication of choice for ADHD  and are FDA-approved for treatment in children, about 10 to 30 percent of children and adults do not tolerate stimulant therapy or do not respond to it, according to a 2009 study in CNS Drugs. Also, some people respond to one kind of stimulant and not another. Some common side effects of stimulants include decreased appetite, insomnia, dizziness, increased anxiety, and/or irritability. Mild stomach aches, nausea, blurry vision, and a slight increase in blood pressure and heart rate may occur. Understanding and anticipating these side effects is helpful, as they can affect your adherence or willingness to take the medication. If you do experience any side effects from your stimulant medications, please discuss them with your doctor. Also, be safe and dont stop or change the dosage of your medication without medical guidance. There are a number of forms of stimulants available, like shorter and longer-acting medications. Extended-release stimulants are those that provide longer-lasting, continuous level of medication. They dissolve slowly and release the drug over time. The older forms of immediate release require that medication be taken every 3 to 5 hours. Types of stimulant medications for ADHD include: Adderall (amphetamine; dextroamphetamine)Concerta or Daytrana (methylphenidate)Desoxyn (methamphetamine)Dexedrine or Dextrostat  or Zenzedi (dextroamphetamine)Focalin (dexmethylphenidate)Metadate CD, Methylin, Ritalin (methylphenidate)Vyvanse (lisdexamfetamine) Non-Stimulants The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a non-stimulant medication called Strattera (atomoxetine) for the treatment of ADHD in children, adolescents, and adults â€" its actually the first medication approved by the FDA for treating ADHD in adults. Strattera is a good option for people who cannot tolerate or take a stimulant medication for their ADHD. Its also a good option for people who are at risk for abuse or dependence on stimulant medications. Similar side effects are seen with Strattera, as with the stimulant medications, although they tend to be milder. These include loss of appetite, irritability, sleep disturbances, dizziness, abdominal pain, and fatigue. Other Medications Sometimes a person fails to respond to stimulants or Strattera for their ADHD or the side effects are intolerable. In these cases, a doctor may try another medication, like clonidine or guanfacine, which are FDA-approved in the US for treatment in children and adolescents. If a person can tolerate stimulants, clonidine or guanfacine may also be given in addition to a stimulant to increase its effects. Less commonly, a doctor may prescribe a medication like the antidepressant Bupropion to treat ADHD. Bupropion is  not FDA-approved for treating ADHD â€" meaning there is not enough scientific studies to back up its effectiveness and safety in treating ADHD. What This Means for You ADHD can be effectively treated with either behavioral therapies and/or medication. That being said, its important for individuals on medications for their ADHD to see their doctor on a regular basis. Be sure that your doctor or healthcare professional is experienced specifically with ADHD. For you, this means that youll be getting valuable input from a knowledgable source, who can better answer your questions about different treatment types. ADHD Discussion Guide Get our printable guide for your next doctors appointment to help you ask the right questions. Download PDF Medication benefits, side effects, and dosages need to be carefully monitored to ensure your safety and optimization of your health. If youre starting a new medication (or are already on medication) be sure to communicate any side effects, however minor, with your doctor as well. What to Know About ADHD Medication

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Suicide And The College Life - 1918 Words

James Dykes SOC 201 Professor Bobys 28 October 2014 Suicide and the College Life Among the general population of young adults aged eighteen to twenty four, homicide and suicide are, respectively, the second and third leading causes of death. While no studies currently compare homicide and suicide rates on campuses, the risk of homicide is generally lower, and many campus professionals dedicated to suicide prevention and mental health promotion often refer to suicide as the second leading cause of death among college students (Suicide Prevention Resource Center, 2004). Available data suggests that suicide occurs at a rate between six point five and seven point five per one hundred thousand among college students, approximately half the rate†¦show more content†¦According to Durkheim there are four major types of suicide anomic, altruistic, egostic and fatalistic suicides. Anomic is when people feel lost and alone, altruistic is when there are social factors, egostic is where someone is or feels detached from society, and fatalistic is someone who kills th emselves before they are taken to jail usually death by cop. Most college students would fall into the anomic suicide they mostly feel lost or alone in a strange new place. The rate of suicide in college students can be linked to depression, sexual orientation, and the fear of failure. Depression in college students is one of the main factors of suicide Some of the triggers of college depression include being away from home, lack of a normal social support group, and a history of depression. According to the article, Suicide Ideation Among College Students Evidencing Subclinical Depression students who thought about suicide more often were more depressed. Almost half of students who have reported suicidal behavior never received psychiatric help. This shows that past attempts at suicide could lead to future attempts at suicide. Being away from home is another major factor in depression. Most people agree that for the first month away from home they are depressed about being in colle ge. People do not realize that when they go to college they are leaving behind most of their social

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Middle School Science Fair Project Ideas

It can be really hard to come up with a middle school science fair project idea. Sometimes it helps to see what others have done or to read project ideas. Have you done a middle school science fair project or do you have a good idea for a good middle school project? Whats your project idea? Here are ideas shared by other readers: white fish When you leave a fish in the dark it will eventually turn white. Try it please. It really works! — kittycat60 Burn those old clothes In the 7th grade I did an experiment on which fabric burns the fastest. I cut up old clothes into equal pieces and let fire do the rest of the work. Got 1st place even while having a partner who did nothing. I thought it was a pretty fun experiment. — Dre bubble gum Test which bubble gum brand pops the biggest bubbles. — guest Rusty Nail I did a science experiment on which types of nails rust the fastest. Try a nail in vinegar, water, or Pepsi. — anonymoud crystal race I recorded how fast it took for crystals to grow using salt and sugar. I got fourth place, but the good thing was after they grew I got to eat the sugar crystals! (Do not eat the salt.) — Doodlebug1111 Ants be gone!!! Last year in 6th grade I did a science fair project with my friends and we did WHICH HOUSEHOLD PRODUCT REPELS ANTS BETTER LEMON JUICE, POWDER, OR CINNAMON? We got second place in the school. — Guest5 truth I did an experiment on what foods are the best to seal cracks. I tried common foods, like peanut butter, pudding, jello, and ice cream. I then let them dry and put water in the cup with the crack measured what food stopped the water best. Got an A somehow... so easy! —Guest 6666666666 caffeine - plants I watered 3 plants with caffeine and 3 with water. Record your results and make a graph to see which one dies faster. Its so easy!! I got an A — bqggrdxvv LED lights I did a science project on L.E.D lights and I got 1st place! Do L.E.D lights affect electricity usage? I took a normal light and measured the amps (you want the least amount of amps) and then I took the L.E.D light and measured the amps. It was pretty cool and I got 1st place and an A! — mustache Crayons Does the color of a crayon affect how long of a line it makes? (Editors note: If you use an entire crayon, this project could take a long time. One way to test this would be to mark equal, short distances on different colored crayons. Draw a line back and forth down a very large/long until you reach the mark on each color. Count the number of lines on the paper and see if they are the same for each crayon.) — Sonic EASY A! In 5th grade i did a project on which candies melt faster. All you have do is put different kind of candies (lollipop, Hershey, etc.) in hot boiling water and see which one melts the fastest. Also got 1st place! — chiii say hello Get an A t make a regular volcano but instead of baking soda use Mentos and pop. Watch your teachers be amazed. — shay Colored Fire I did an experiment on colored fire. I bought chemicals like copper sulfate, and lit it after spraying alcohol on it. (you can also use salt). it was really awsome and I won the science fair. it was an easy A — makhassak rockets We got a toilet paper roll and cut a rubber band on one side then taped the rubber band so it went diagonally across the top then set it aside and got 3 straws and cut one straw 2 inches long taped the ends of the straws toget her with the little one in the middle then u put the rubber band in the middle of the two straws so it is touching the baby straw and some of the big straw will be hanging out the bottom pull it and let go it will shoot a long way this is a good way to test elastic potential energy epa — hunger games sprouting beans I did a experiment where u try to find out if rubbing alcohol, baby oil, salt water, water, sugar water, or vinegar which one do plants grow best in? I got an A — 5052364 pH scale I did a project with my friends and get about 7 differents liquids like cola fanta lemon juice and you put different types of solid objects like chalk and see what dissolves fastest. Got a silver. — 2cool Microwave Power~ You can microwave a marshmallow at different temperatures and see what happens. Make a chart of what happened. Make sure to take pictures. This is not a research project. This is a Scientific Method Project. REMEMBER: DONT SET THE MICROWAVE TIMER HIGHER THAN 1 MIN! DO SECONDS AND ALSO HAVE AN ADULT SUPERVISE!! — 625 Salty water and eggs When I was in 6th grade I did an experiment. We were trying to know how much salt do you need for an egg to float. To be honest, thats the easiest project EVER! you just put 2 cups of water: one with NO salt an one FULL of salt you put the eggs inside and the one with salt floats. and thats all. EASY 100! — Miranda F. Planty Liquids y friends and I watered flowers with milk, lemonade, and coke for two weeks to see which would live the longest and die the fastest. got an A! —Guest Guest ME temperature i did this thing were I got a box of insulation and put a thermometer in there with a jar of cold water to see if it stayed cold (: try it ! — sydneyxguest easy My brother did this and got 2nd out of everybody in our school. He put a banana in a spot in the house that is room temp. A banana in the fridge, and a banana outside to see which decayed faster. —Guest anonomus mento pop explosion I bought 2 pops and shook them up. then I put 5 mentos in and when it started to go out I picked it up and it shot at my targets right on spot. — science beany bag it works really well. Take a rag and put black eyed beans in the rag and fold it up a week or two later they have sprouted and ready to grow beans!!!!!!! — Guest MENTOS! Get mint mentos candy and put in different sodas to see which soda goes the farthest (diet pepsi is the best) —Guest Volcano When I was in 5th grade I did a project and won first place. It was a volcano and I used lots of research, which held it up well and helped me with the winnings. I loved it when I did this because I actually won so hooray! — Kelsey Vandyne moon Which moon phase lasts longer? Look and see Im not gonna tell ya :D — tiara keep the cool I got 3 boxes and in each box i filled it with aluminum foil, cotton, and one without anything and put inside nothing then i put in a juice in each box to seen which one keeps it most cold. I competed with 75 other schools and got 2nd place —Guest Balloon Lung Question: How does ur lung work? Well all u have to do is get an empty bottle and a little cone and a balloon.Turn the cone upside down and put the balloon on the pointy edge.Then stick the cone with the balloon on the end in the bottle.Then ur done squeeze the bottle!!!!!!!! — HungerGames!!!!! Underwater Volcano Last year I did an underwater volcano. I won second place and got an A my teacher really liked the originality — lhern64 More Middle School Science Project Ideas

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

America in the 1950’s Free Essays

McCarthyism, which found its main thrust in the Alien Registration Act of 1940, made difficult for immigrants because of its stringent requirements that they declare their political beliefs. These statements were rigorous disclosures of the status of these immigrants—which included current employment status and previous political affiliations. McCarthyism was also responsible for the purging of the Motion Picture industry in Hollywood of persons suspected of being communist sympathizers or activists. We will write a custom essay sample on America in the 1950’s or any similar topic only for you Order Now In the government’s efforts to upset the position of the Communists in the United States, it succeeded in terrorizing many innocents. This was occasioned in many courts by the accepting even inconclusive evidence brought against citizens. People loss their jobs and became imprisoned on charges that were non-substantial and that in later years would be deemed unconstitutional or otherwise actionable. Mistrust was bred among immigrant colleagues and members of the motion picture or other industries (Davidson, 2002). Dynamic conservatism is described as a tendency within a population to struggle for the maintenance of the status quo. This status quo maintenance is found desirable for the sake of stability within a state. The phenomenon is considered dynamic, as it is based on an active attempt to fight against forces that seek to overthrow or change the established order. Dynamic conservatism is more than mere resistance to change, as it includes mechanisms that learn from situations and make targeted efforts at strengthening the forces within the organization (or state) that are concerned with preservation of the status quo. With regard to the activities of the 1950’s, dynamic conservatism refers to Eisenhower’s domestic policy that supported and strengthened the New Deal giving it more legitimacy. It involved scaling down of the budget and the removal of federal influence in certain aspects of the country’s running (Davidson, 2002). Politics of consensus represented a form of agreement within the governmental, economic, and societal bodies. It involves a widespread understanding that consultation among these actors will take place regarding issues that are of national importance. It sought to create a harmonization of the ideas and desires of the influential and representative bodies in the country (such as trade unions and political parties). The party in power creates a system by which it seeks out the input and suggestions of all the involved entities. This provokes consideration of all the interests that attach to certain political decisions and seeks to ensure the inclusion of these interests in the final solution. The politics of consensus, as is implied by the term â€Å"consensus† seeks to identify a solution that is created by all and accepted by all involved. Therefore, rather than decisions being representative of the triumph of one party or group over another, it would reflect the cooperation of all groups in the taking of a political or socio-economic decision. Before Dwight Eisenhower came to the presidency, Americans faced uncertainty in an economy that was recovering from the depression of the 1920’s and 1930’s while being in the middle of a war (World War II). Consumer confidence was low, as resources were scarce and tapped. However, recovery came during the Eisenhower administration, when the American society entered an era of consumerism in which the values and actions of the consumer played a dominant role in the country’s economics. The economy was growing vastly, and income levels were increasing. This created not just more money in families, but also more leisure among Americans. Consumer confidence was high, as was confidence in the state of the American economy. This led to increased spending, and the resultant materialism. From the president, Americans no longer required specific action but the assurance that such prosperity would continue, and the moderation that defined Eisenhower’s administration reflected the surface contentment of the American society (Davidson, 2002). While the exact beginning of the Civil Rights Movement is unclear, a major revolutionary marker was the Supreme Court decision that maintaining and mandating separate facilities for different races was inherently unequal. This occurred in the 1954 Brown vs. Board of Education case, which overturned the Plessy vs. Ferguson case over a half century earlier. This was followed hard upon by the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1955, which took place in Alabama. It represented a more concerted effort on the part of black persons to garner the recognition of their rights to use the facilities provided by their country in an equal way. This event, which was triggered by the refusal of Rosa Parks to move to the back of a bus, led to an explosion of civil rights demonstrations in the South and around the country. The United States became interested in helping France to retain hold of its territory in Vietnam. The problem of communism was related to this, as the doctrine of communism containment heralded by Harry Truman targeted the communist stronghold region—South East Asia. This region was made up of many small communist countries, and their size made it more likely that they (rather than larger communist counterparts) should fall. The domino effect was considered by Eisenhower as how such a fall should occur. He proposed to target one country in that area, and expected the subsequent fall of the others. The initial communist party was begun by Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam, who sought independence from the Vichy French. Warlike relations only escalated when the Americans entered into the dispute in order to aid the French, and this assistance only increased upon the invasion of the South Korea by North Korea in 1950. McCarthyism enabled distrust among the ranks of many political, social, and economic entities in the United States. This distrust fueled not just underground activity and disgruntled feeling toward the United States government, but fierce sentiment against communism also has been considered as a factor in the assassination of later United States presidents and congressmen. It has therefore caused a lot of citizen distrust of the government. Dynamic conservatism. Dynamic conservatism has impacted such areas as civil rights movement, gay rights and women’s rights, as this tendency defines the actions of such groups that would have preferred that the minorities remain unrepresented and repressed. However, the Civil Rights movement of the 1950’s and 1960’s has led to an increased level of equality not just for African Americans, but also for other racial minority groups in the United States. It has been the fore-runner of such policies as affirmative action, which grants places within key organizations and key opportunities for minorities. Politics of consensus has been a method through which harmony has been restored somewhat to the political and social climate of the United States. This form of government has sought to create an open forum in which dialogues now take place regarding issues of great importance to many groups within the country. Consumerism allowed for the expansion of the United States economy, as it boosted consumer confidence, which increased spending and stimulated further economic growth. The involvement of the U.S. in Southeast Asia led to further involvement and was in the Korea and subsequently in Vietnam. This has had a negative impact on the image of presidents in the White House and upon the government as a whole, especially during the Vietnam War period. Anti-war sentiment regarding this was has continued very far beyond that period. This Southeast Asian involvement led to presidents’ refusal to run for a second term and indirectly contributed to Nixon’s resignation. Reference Davidson, J. W. (2002). Nation of nations. New York: McGraw-Hill.    How to cite America in the 1950’s, Essay examples

Friday, May 1, 2020

Organisation free essay sample

The subject matter of Organizational Behaviour is complex. Organizational Behaviour is not a homogeneous subject, but the result of a mingling of other disciplines such as psychology, sociology, politics, philosophy and economics. The fact that a subject called Organizational Behaviour exists in Business and Management courses is due to the need of those with managing people and systems at work to inform their thinking as they address the underlying social and behavioural issues that confront them. Since the study of Organizational Behaviour is composed of a blending of various social sciences, it will involve, to a certain extent, the approach of behavioural science – a collective term for the grouping of all the social sciences concerned with the study of people’s behaviour[1]. Three main disciplines are: Psychology:Study of human behaviour, traits of the individual (perception, attitudes and motives), and membership of small social groups. Sociology:Study of social behaviour, relationships among social groups and societies, and the maintenance of order (e. We will write a custom essay sample on Organisation or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page g. he relationship between the behaviour of leaders and followers). Anthropology:More concerned with the science of mankind and the study of human behaviour as a whole – cultural system: the beliefs, customs, ideas and values within a group or society. Organization There is also the problem of defining what is an ‘organization’. Morgan, G. (1986), Sage Publications (â€Å"†¦organizations are complex and paradoxical phenomena that can be understood in many ways. Many of our taken-for-granted ideas about organizations are metaphorical†¦For example, we frequently talk about organizations as if they were machines†¦Ã¢â‚¬  It is because the concept of organization is so difficult to understand that other metaphors, apart from machines, are used to understand its nature. Therefore organization is variously described as organisms, brains, cultures, etc. Machines (the mechanistic or classical view)Organizations can be designed as if they are machines giving relations between clearly defined parts. This can provide the basis for efficient operation in a routine, reliable and predictable way. Organizations viewed as machines function better in a stable and protected environment. Organisms (the organic view)In this regard the organization is considered as behaving like a living system. Biological mechanisms adapt to changes in their environment, so do organizations, as open systems, adapt to the changing external environment. Brains(the cybernetic view)Brains are inventive and rational. The challenge is to create organizations capable of intelligent change and therefore able to disperse brainlike capabilities. Cultures (a product of their dominant values)The collective interest and unity of an organization is built up through shared beliefs, habits and traditions. Handy (1993), Understanding Organisations (4th Edn), Penguin Business â€Å"†¦ anyone who has spent time with any variety of organizations, or worked in more than two or three, will have been struck by the differing atmospheres, the differing ways of doing things, the differing levels of energy, of individual freedom, of kinds of personality. For organizations are as different and varied as th e nations and societies of the world. They have differing cultures – sets of values and norms and beliefs – reflected in different structures and systems† Psychic Prisons (sources of stress)The way the organizations are designed and structured and the methods and procedures of work, etc are likely sources of stress to the workers. The above metaphors, though providing a broader view of the dynamics of organizational behaviour, are not fixed. An organization can be a mix of each, and predominantly a combination of two or three metaphors, which may change over a period of time. Whatever definition taken, an organization is a means to an end rather than an end in itself. Organizations in these circumstances are usually structured in a formal way that recognizes individual responsibilities and yet circumscribes them at the same time. The more junior the position held in the organization, the more restricted is the scope for decision-making. The higher the position the greater the freedom of discretion. There are organization theories that insist that people must be controlled if organization goals are to be achieved. There are also other theories, which suggest that individuals perform better if allowed freedom and responsibility, and therefore should be subject to fewer controls. A fuller definition of an organization could thus be: A work organization consists of a group (large or small) or groups of people who collaborate in a structured and relatively permanent way in order to achieve one or more goals, which they could not achieve by acting on their own. Such an organization is structured in a manner, which formally recognizes, and places, the tasks and roles that individuals are expected to fulfil. The operation of work organizations implies a considerable degree of control over individual members, especially those most junior in the task structure. The predominant values and standards of the members of an organization develop over time to form an organization culture, which is a preferred way of doing things. The particular form and culture adopted by an organization is considerably affected by technological and environmental factors[2] For an organization to be successful the importance of achieving productivity through the effective management of people, and their commitment to, and involvement with the organization has to be stressed. Some people may well have a set motivation to work, whatever the nature of the work environment. But work situations may also influence the individual’s orientation to work. It is through the process of management that the efforts of members of the organization are directed and guided towards the achievement of organizational goals. The Meaning of Organizational Behaviour (The behaviour of People) Organizational Behaviour is concerned with the study of the behaviour of people within an organizational setting. It involves the understanding, prediction and control of human behaviour. Common definitions of organizational behaviour (OB) are generally along the lines of: the study and understanding of individual and group behaviour, and patterns of structure in order to help improve organizational performance and effectiveness (Laurie J Mullins, page 14). There is a close relation between organizational behaviour and management theory and practice. Some writers seem to suggest that organizational behaviour and management are synonymous. But this is an over simplification. Organizational behaviour does not encompass the whole of management; it is more accurately described in the narrower interpretation of providing a behavioural approach to management. The Framework of Study The behaviour of people, however, cannot be studied in isolation. It is necessary to understand interrelationships with other variables, which together comprise the total organization. This will involve consideration of interactions among the formal structure, the tasks to be undertaken, the technology employed and methods of carrying out work, the process of management and the external environment. The study of organizational behaviour, hence embraces an understanding of: o The behaviour of people; o The process of management; o The organizational context in which the process of management takes place; o Organizational processes and the execution of work; and o Interactions with the external environment of which the organization is part. A number of interrelated dimensions such as the individual, the group, the organization and the environment (which collectively influence behaviour in work organizations) can be identified by the above variables. The Individual Individuals make up organizations. Hence individual is a central feature of organizational behaviour whether the individual is acting alone or in a group in response to expectations of the organization, or as a result of the influences of the external environment. Where the needs of the individual and the demands of the organization are incompatible, this can result in frustration and conflict. It is the task of management to provide a working environment, which permits the satisfaction of individual needs as well as the attainment of organizational goals. The Group Groups are found in all organizations. They are essential to the working and performance of the organizations. Such groups (commonly referred to as informal groups) arise from the social needs of people within the organization. Members of the groups influence each other and may develop their own hierarchies and leaders. Group pressures can have a major influence over the behavior and performance of individual members. An understanding of group structure and behaviour complements knowledge of individual behaviour and adds a further dimension to organizational behaviour. The Organization An organization is structured to establish relationships between individuals and groups, to provide order and systems and to direct the efforts of the organization into goal-seeking activities. It is through the formal structure that people carry out their organizational activities in order to achieve aims and objectives. Behaviour is affected by patterns of organization structure, technology, styles of leadership and systems of management through which organizational processes are planned, directed and controlled. The focus of attention, therefore, is on the impact of organization structure and design, and patterns of management, on the behaviour of people within the organization. The Environment The organization is part of the broader external environment. The external environment affects the organization through technological and scientific development, economic activity, social and cultural influences and governmental actions. The effects of the operation of the organization within its environment are reflected in terms of the management of opportunities and risks and the successful achievement of its aims and objectives. The increasing rate of change in environmental factors has highlighted the need to study the total organization and the processes by which the organization attempts to adapt to the external demands placed upon it. Organizational Behaviour and Management Theory and Practice As discussed in the previous page Organizational Behaviour also encompasses Management Theory. Management Theory is especially concerned with issues of goal setting, resource deployment, employee motivation, teamwork, eadership, control and coordination, and performance measurement. Like Organizational Behaviour, it is an eclectic subject, which draws on the social sciences for most of its material. The difference in emphasis between Organizational Behaviour and Management Theory is principally that the former is concerned with examining the behaviour of people at all levels in groups, whilst the latter is more focused on the control of people’s behaviour by their managers in the pursuit of organizational go als.